human papilloma virus

human papilloma virus molecule

Papillomavirus infection (human papillomavirus, papillomavirus) is an oncogenic disease that manifests itself in the form of papillary formations (warts, warts) on the human skin or in the genital area. Both men and women are almost equally susceptible to the virus.

It is worth noting that such an infection may indicate the formation of a malignant tumor. Today, more than 100 species of this virus are known in medicine. About 30 of them affect only the female genital organs.

The World Health Organization studied HPV, the human papillomavirus is so short called, and found that more than 60% of people on Earth are infected with it. Also, some of them are only carriers, while in others it manifests itself in the form of papillomatosis of the skin, mucous membranes, but in some cases the human papillomavirus causes cell degeneration and cancer.

Etiology

About 60% of the world's population are potential carriers of human papillomavirus infection. In most cases, the virus is spread from a sick person to a healthy person. In addition, the triggers are the following:

  • the beginning of sexual activity at an early age;
  • unprotected sex, frequent change of sexual partners;
  • chronic inflammation in the genital area, infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • frequent abortions;
  • weak immunity;
  • Alcohol abuse;
  • non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.

As medical practice shows, women are in the main risk group. The probability of "catching" such a disease is quite high in people of the age group from 20 to 45 years. That is, those who lead an active sexual life.

general symptoms

The symptoms of this type of infection depend on what exactly was the provoking factor. The disease does not present a single clinical picture. However, the following symptoms can be distinguished:

  • the formation of warts;
  • skin irritation in the genital area;
  • discomfort during intercourse;
  • redness and partial itching.

At the same time, it is worth noting that symptoms in the form of skin irritation and itching may indicate another disease. Therefore, self-medication is not worth it in any case. With such symptoms, it is better to immediately consult a dermatologist.

Warts most often appear in the following places:

  • on the skin of the palms, soles;
  • in the genital area;
  • in the oral cavity.

In more severe cases, this type of infection can develop in the cervix, bladder, and vagina. The only way to get rid of warts is through surgery. Human papillomavirus infection in women can lead to cervical cancer. As for men, the oncogenic factor is observed much less often.

It is also worth noting that in the early stages of development, an ailment of this type of symptoms practically does not give. This is what often leads to an oncogenic risk factor for infection.

pathogenesis

Infection with the virus is possible only if a healthy person has microtrauma to the genital organs. In this case, the papilloma virus enters the body of a healthy person and begins to develop.

The incubation period for one type of oncogenic virus can last from several months to several years, without showing any symptoms. In other words, an already infected person can be a carrier and not be aware of it.

HPV in women

As already mentioned, women between the ages of 20 and 45 are the most susceptible to the virus. But here it is worth noting the fact that in the main risk group are those who often change sexual partners and have unprotected sex.

This type of infection in women is divided into the following groups:

  • high oncogenicity;
  • low oncogenicity;
  • non-oncogenic type.

The most dangerous for women's health is an infection of a high type of oncogenicity. It almost always leads to cancer, a malignant tumor, cervical cancer. The risk of such development of pathology is 90%. The situation is aggravated by the fact that in the early stages of development, the disease does not show symptoms. Occasionally, small warts may appear on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.

With a type of infection of high oncogenicity, warts are formed. These are wart-like formations, but with uneven edges. Such formations can appear in the vagina, anus and perineum. Sometimes warts can take the form of fluid-filled bubbles, which eventually burst and give off an unpleasant odor.

A high type of HPV infection can also cause cancer of the vagina and vulva. In rarer clinical cases, cancer of the nasopharynx is possible. It should be noted that it is almost impossible to completely cure a high oncogenicity form of HPV.

papilloma virus in men

Human papillomavirus infection in men can occur without any symptoms. It is worth noting that in the main risk group, men who often change sexual partners have unprotected sex.

Pathological formations are localized in such places:

  • on the head and shaft of the penis;
  • on the skin of the scrotum;
  • in the perineum;
  • on the mucous membrane.

Such formations can be grouped. As a rule, they do not cause itching and other unpleasant sensations. Very rarely, they may be accompanied by itching or burning only during sexual intercourse.

Such a virus in men can take the form of high oncogenicity. This leads to cancer of the genital organs. But, if you start treatment on time, the risk of oncogenic diseases is minimized. Warts caused by the HPV virus are removed surgically or with special chemical solutions. Along the way, antiviral drugs are prescribed. Therefore, in the early stages of the development of this type of ailment in men, it can be completely eliminated.

human papilloma virus in women and men

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of HPV infection consists of several stages. Initially, an examination by a doctor and clarification of the anamnesis is carried out. If the disease is suspected in women, a gynecologist should perform the primary examination. After that, the following tests may be prescribed:

  • vaginal scraping;
  • vaginal tissue biopsy;
  • PCR analysis.

The latter allows not only to accurately establish the diagnosis, but also to determine the cause of the development of the pathological process, its form of development. If there is a risk of developing an oncological disease, a general and biochemical blood test, instrumental research methods are additionally prescribed.

Colposcopy is mandatory if HPV infection is suspected. This is an examination of the cervix, to identify deep pathological changes.

As for men, the diagnosis has approximately the same picture. After an examination by a urologist or surgeon, a referral for testing is given.

Only according to the results of the diagnosis, a competent doctor can prescribe the correct course of treatment. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the lower the risk of complications.

Treatment

At the moment, there is no drug in medicine that can deliberately destroy the HPV virus. Therefore, treatment is complex. Not only the form of the disease is taken into account, but also the cause of its occurrence. It is also worth noting that a person who has been ill or is ill with the HPV virus should be regularly examined by the attending physician. It is possible to completely cure papillomavirus only in the early stages. In any case, the risk of developing cancer or the formation of a malignant tumor is always there. Avoiding the virus is easier than getting rid of it.

Treatment of papillomavirus infection can be conditionally divided into the following stages:

  • removal of warts or warts;
  • drug therapy to prevent new formations;
  • Therapy aimed at strengthening the immune system.

It should be noted that such a treatment program is applicable only if there is no risk of developing a malignant tumor or sexually transmitted infections. If the latter is confirmed, the treatment program includes medications to eliminate the underlying disease. Antiviral drugs are used in any case. In most cases, broad-spectrum medications are prescribed. However, the use of such drugs does not exclude the recurrence of the disease.

It is much more difficult to cure the HPV virus if it has become chronic and has a high oncogenic factor. In this case, additional tests are prescribed and chemotherapy is used.

Treatment of human papillomavirus is possible only by a competent specialist. Self-medication is unacceptable here, since the HPV virus is recognized as oncogenic. Therefore, in most cases, it is quite difficult to cure it. Even surgical removal of warts or genital warts does not exclude their new formation.

How to treat papillomavirus correctly, only a specialist can tell. Using home remedies to cure HPV is not enough. Therefore, if symptoms of the disease are detected, you should immediately seek competent medical help.

Prevention

One of the most effective preventive measures is vaccination against the virus. This makes it possible to prevent the development in the body not only of HPV infection, but also of cervical cancer. In addition, the following rules must be followed:

  • only protected sex;
  • strengthen the immune system;
  • regular examination by a gynecologist or urologist;
  • personal hygiene.

You need to carefully monitor your health, do not abuse alcohol, smoke. As for intimate life, if possible, frequent change of sexual partners should be excluded. With symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor and not self-medicate.